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This paper expands Mosaic World, an artificial life model, in order to directly test theories on the emergence of multicellular life. Five experiments are conducted and demonstrate that both the presence of predation and accidental aggregation are sufficient conditions for the transition to multicellularity. In addition, it is shown that division of labour is a major benefit for aggregation, and evolves even if aggregates ‘pay’ for abilities they do not use. Analysis of evolved results shows multiple parallels to natural systems, such as differentiation in constituent members of an aggregate, and life-like, complex ecosystems.
Investigating the Emergence of Multicellularity Using a Population of Neural Network Agents